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  Traditional Knowledge > Selected Bibliography
  Including some annotations.
  Go to:
  Other on-line bibliographies
  Traditional knowledge in the forest sector
  Traditional knowledge in general
  Other on-line bibliographies
  St. Francis Xavier University Ecological Knowledge Bibliographic Resources
  This bibliography includes many traditional knowledge references.

Indigenous Peoples' Restoration Network

  Alaska Native Knowledge Network

Native Americans and the Environment

  This website provides quite a large number of links with annotations. However, not many of the links deal specifically with forest issues.

Annotated Bibliography of Aboriginal Education (Tl'azt'en Nation and the University of BC Community-University Research Alliance)

  Many of the references given here are relevant to issues of traditional knowledge and/or Aboriginal human resources in the forest sector.
  Traditional knowledge in the forest sector
  Booth, A., and N. Skelton. 2003. First Nations, traditional environmental/ecological knowledge (TEK) and the Prince George Timber Supply Area. Presentation to the Futures Development Committee of the McGregor Model Forest Association.
  Booth, A., and N. Skelton. 2003. Report to the McGregor Model Forest Association: Development Plan for Theme 4: “First Nations Sustainable Forestry Management” and A Report on “Consolidating Traditional Ecological Knowledge Tools within the McGregor Model Forest (PG TSA).” Prince George, BC: McGregor Model Forest Association.
  Brubacher, D., and D. McGregor. 1998. Aboriginal forest-related traditional ecological knowledge in Canada. Contribution for the 19th Session of the North American Forest Commission. Villahermosa, Mexico.
  Donovan, D., and R. Puri. 2004. Learning from traditional knowledge of non-timber forest products: Penan Benalui and the autecology of Aquilaria in Indonesian Borneo. Ecology and Society 9(3): 3.
  Elias, P.D. 2004. Standards for Aboriginal cultural research in forest management planning in Canada. Project ASI-03/04-003. March 23, 2004. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Model Forest Network.
  Four Directions Council 1996. Forests, Indigenous Peoples and Biodiversity: Contribution of the Four Directions Council. Submission to the Secretariat for the Convention on Biological Diversity. Lethbridge, Canada, Four Directions Council.
  Hiebert, D., and K. Van Rees. 1998. Traditional Knowledge on Forestry Issues within the Prince Albert Grand Council. Draft. Prince Albert, SK: Prince Albert Model Forest.
  Michel, H., and D. Gayton. 2002. Linking Indigenous People's knowledge and western science in natural resource management. Conference proceedings. Kamloops, BC: Southern Interior Forest Extension and Research Partnership.
  National Aboriginal Forestry Association (NAFA). 1996. Aboriginal Forest-Based Ecological Knowledge in Canada. Ottawa.
  Prince Albert Model Forest (PAMF). 1999. Criteria and Indicators for Naturalized Knowledge: Framework and Workshop Proceedings.
  Stevenson, M.G. 1998. Traditional knowledge and environmental management: from commodity to process. Paper for NAFA conference, Celebrating Partnerships. September 14-18, 1998. Prince Albert, SK.
  Stevenson, M.G. 2005. Traditional knowledge in Sustainable Forest Management. Edmonton, AB: Sustainable Forest Management Network.

Turner, R. 2006. My land ethic. The Forestry Chronicle 82(2): 124-125.

  Turner reflects on his own cultural grounding in traditional community culture and values, and how his decision to enter a professional forestry program may or may not compromise those concerns.
  Yachay Wasi. 2006. Report of Sacred Sites and the Environment from an Indigenous Perspective. A side event of the Fifth Session of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues
  Traditional knowledge in general
  Abele, F. 1997. Traditional knowledge in practice. Arctic 50(4):iii-iv.

Agrawal, A. 1995. Dismantling the divide between indigenous and scientific knowledge. Development and Change 26: 413-439.


"This article discusses the current focus - especially within 'people-centred' development - on the use of indigenous knowledge as a significant resource. Although Agrawal recognises that the challenge to the monopoly enjoyed by 'Western' (scientific) knowledge is long overdue, he criticises the assumption implicit in the new indigenous knowledge discourse that there is a clear divide between indigenous and Western knowledge. This dichotomous classification of knowledge is bound to fail for two reasons. Firstly, each body of knowledge is so heterogenous that it cannot be clearly separated from the other. Secondly, the indigenous versus Western classification assumes that knowledge is a fixed system (in time, space and content). Instead, Agrawal argues that knowledge creation is a fluid process that evolves in close interaction with the changing (political, institutional, cultural, economic) context. Moreover, knowledge changes depending on the interests it serves and the purposes for which it is used. Therefore, different strategies for systematising and disseminating knowledge will not be 'neutral', but will benefit different social groups." ( Global Development Network website)

  Annunziata, J. 1999. Words that Come before All Else: Environmental Philosophies of the Haudenosaunee. Cornwall Island, ON: Haudenosaunee Environmental Task Force, Native North American Travelling College.
  Assembly of First Nations (AFN). 1995. The feasibility of representing traditional indigenous knowledge in cartographic, pictorial, or textual forms.
  Battiste, M. 1998. Enabling the autumn seed: Toward a decolonized approach to Aboriginal knowledge, language, and education. Canadian Journal of Native Education 22(1): 16-27.
  “Battiste argues that an aboriginal curricula, which emphasizes language, be incorporated into the provincial curricula in order to break the cycle of European centered views in education. She points out that aboriginal communities continue to suffer the effects of colonization and imperialistic policies which essentially erode the base of indigenous knowledge. Although the federal government has entered into agreements with First Nations that require them to adopt a provincial curricula as a minimum requirement to assume control of their education, these curricula are often developed away from aboriginal communities, without aboriginal input and written excursively in English. The article discusses the need for aboriginal knowledge to be retained through aboriginal languages supported in the curricula. It also challenges the Eurocentric assumptions that have pushed aboriginal knowledge and languages to the margins and raises current aboriginal educational concerns regarding a transformed curriculum that embraces the rich diversity of knowledge and provides the necessary consciousness to enable Aboriginal humanity to be respected and protected.” (annotation from Raby et al 2004)
  Battiste, M., and J. Youngblood Henderson. 2000. Protecting Indigenous Knowledge and Heritage: A Global Challenge. Saskatoon, SK: Purich.
  This book examines the issues and potential solutions to challenges in protecting traditional knowledge and Indigenous heritage at both the Canadian national and international levels. Very little of the book is directly concerned with forest-related knowledge and issues.
  Berkes, F. 1999. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management. Philadelphia and London: Taylor & Francis.
  Berkes, F., and C. Folke. 2002. Back to the future: Ecosystem dynamics and local knowledge. In Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems. pp 121-146.
  Berkes, F., J. Colding, and C. Folke. 2000. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecological Applications 10(5): 1251-1262.
  Brascoupé, S., and K. Endemann. 1999. Intellectual property and Aborginal people: A working paper. Ottawa: Department of Indian and Northern Development of Canada.
  Brascoupé, S., and H. Mann. 2001. A Community Guide to Protecting Indigenous Knowledge. Ottawa: Department of Indian and Northern Development of Canada.
  Brockman, A., B. Masuzumi, and S. Augustine. 1997. When All Peoples Have the Same Story, Humans Will Cease to Exist. Protecting and Conserving Traditional Knowledge: A Report to the Biodiversity Convention Office. September 1997. Dene Cultural Institute.
  Clarkson, L., V. Morrissette, and G. Regallet. 1992. Our Responsibility to the Seventh Generation: Indigenous Peoples and Sustainable Development. Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development.
  Clayoquot Sound Scientific Panel (CSSP). 1995. First Nations Perspectives Relating to Forest Practices Standards in Clayoquot Sound. Report 3.
  Cole, David. n.d. Traditional ecological knowledge of the Naskapi and the environmental assessment process. In Law and Process in Environmental Management. S.A. Kennett (ed.). Calgary: Canadian Institute of Resources Law.
  Dene Cultural Institute. 1994. Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Environmental Impact Assessment. In Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Modern Environmental Assessment, B. Sadler and P. Boothroyd (eds.). Vancouver, University of British Columbia Centre for Human Settlements. pp. 31-40.

Duerden, F. 2005. Relations between traditional knowledge and western science (Review). Arctic 1.

  Emery, A.R. 1997. Guidelines for Environmental Assessments and Traditional Knowledge. Unpublished. Ottawa: Centre for Traditional Knowledge.
  Emery, A.R. 2000. Integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Project Planning and Implementation. International Labour Organization, World Bank, Canadian International Development Agency, KIVE Nature Inc.
  Fernandez-Gimenez, M.E. 2000. The role of Mongolian nomadic pastoralists' ecological knowledge in rangeland management. Ecological Applications 10(5): 1318-1326.
  Folke, C (ed.). 2004. Traditional Knowledge in Social-Ecological Systems. Special Issue. Ecology and Society 9(3).
  Ford, J., and D. Martinez. 2000. Traditional ecological knowledge, ecosystem science, and environmental management. Ecological Applications 10(5): 1249-1250.
  Freeman, M. 1992. The nature and utility of traditional ecological knowledge. Northern Perspectives 20(1): np.
  Ghostkeeper, E. 1996. Spirit Gifting: The Concept of Spiritual Exchange. Calgary: Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary.
  Grain. 2004. The great protection racket: Imposing IPRs on traditional knowledge. Seedling (Jan. 2004): 13-17.
  Gwich’in Elders. 1997. Nanh’Kak Geenjit Gwich’in Ginjik: Gwich’in Words about the Land. Inuvik, NT: Gwich’in Renewable Resource Board.
  Hansen, S., and J. VanFleet. 2003. Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property: A Handbook on Issues and Options for Traditional Knowledge Holders in Protecting their Intellectual Property and Maintaining Biological Diversity. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.
  Harry, D., and L.M. Kanehe. 2005. Protecting Indigenous knowledge in a globalized world. A paper presenteed at the World Indigenous Peoples’ Conference on Education, Hamilton, New Zealand.
  Hobson, G. 1992. Traditional knowledge is science. Northern Perspectives 20: 1.
  Horvath, S., L. McKinnon, M. Dickerson, and M. Ross. 2001. The impact of the Traditional Land Use and Occupancy Study on the Dene Tha' First Nation. Project Report 2001-18. Edmonton, AB: Sustainable Forest Management Network.

Howard, A., and F. Widdowson. 1996. Traditional knowledge threatens environmental assessment. Policy Options November 1996: 34-36.

  In this controversial paper, the authors suggest that due to its spiritual components, traditional knowledge does should not have a place in the technical phases of environmental assessments. A number of direct rebuttals followed the publication of this paper.
  Huntington, H.P. 2000. Using traditional ecological knowledge in science: Methods and applications. Ecological Applications 10(5): 1270-1274.
  Inglis, J.T (ed.). 1993. Traditional Ecological Knowledge Concepts and Cases. Ottawa, ON: International Program on Traditional Ecological Knowledge and International Development Research Institute.
  International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity. 2003. Opening Statement – December 8, 2003, Item 7 Sub-Working Group II on Development of Elements of a Sui Generis System for the Protection of Traditional Knowledge, Innovations and Practices of Indigenous and Local Communities (UNEP/CBD/WG8J/3/7))

John, G. (2001). Trodding the circle from Indian community to university research and back. In Science and Native American Communities: Legacies of Pain, Visions of Promise, K. James, pp 63-68. University of Nebraska Press.

  Johnson, M. (ed.). 1992. Lore: Capturing Traditional Environmental Knowledge. Ottawa, ON: Dene Cultural Insitute and the International Development Research Centre.
  Johnston, D. 2006. Connecting people and place: The power and relevance of origin stories. University of Toronto.
  Keoke, E., and K. Porterfield. 2001. American Indian Contributions to the World: 15,000 Years of Inventions and Innovations. Facts on File.
  Kimmerer, R. W. 2002. Weaving traditional ecological knowledge into biological education: A call to action." Bioscience 52(5): 432.
  Klubnikin, K., C. Annett, M. Cherkasova, M. Shishin, and I. Fotieva. 2000. The sacred and the scientific: Traditional ecological knowledge in Siberian river conservation. Ecological Applications 10(5): 1296-1306.
  MacKinnon, L., C. Apentik, and M.P. Robinson. Revisiting traditional land use and occupancy studies: Relevance and implications for resource management in Alberta. Working Paper 1999-16. Edmonton, AB: Sustainable Forest Management Network.
  McGregor, D. 2004. Traditional ecological knowledge and sustainable development: Towards coexistence. In In the Way of Development: Indigenous People, Life Projects and Globalization, M. Blaser, H. Feit, and G. McRae (eds.). Ottawa: Zed and International Development Research Centre. Pp 72-91.
  Manseau, Micheline (ed.) 1997. Terra Borealis: Traditional and Western Scientific Environmental Knowledge. Workshop proceedings. Northwest River, Labrador, Sept. 10-11, 1997. Institute for Environmental Monitoring and Research.
  Mauro, F., and P.D. Hardison. 2000. Traditional knowledge of Indigenous and local communities: International debate and policy initiatives. Ecological Applications 10(5): 1263-1269.

Nadasdy, P. 2003. Hunters and bureaucrats : Power, knowledge, and aboriginal-state relations in the southwest Yukon. Vancouver: UBC Press.

  This is an examination of key issues in attempts to incorporate traditional knowledge in ecosystem management. Nadasdy's basic thesis is that traditional knowledge presents a fundamental challenge to the hegemony of western science and bureaucratic rationality in modern ecosystem management. Power dynamics are the key: Holders of traditional knowledge must participate directly in decision making, and our society must make room for the ways of life that are the source of traditional knowledge. Institutional change is proposed as a key point for action. Perhaps most interesting is the extensive case study of the efforts of the Kluane First Nations and the Canadian federal government to incorporate traditional knowledge in the process to manage the Ruby Range Dall Sheep. Nadasdy provides detailed analysis of the countless pitfalls along the way as the parties attempted to engage each other in a respectful dialogue, while the basic instututional arrangements for decision making remained unchanged. Ultimately, Nadasdy finds that under such conditions, traditional knowledge is neglected and distorted as it is extracted and processed through the bureaucracies that control the resources.
  Nadasdy, P. (1999). "The Politics of TEK: Power and the "Integration" of Knowledge." Arctic Anthropology 36(1-2): 1-18.
  "This paper takes a critical look at the project of 'integrating' traditional knowledge and science. The project of integration has been and continues to be the cornerstone of efforts to involve northern aboriginal peoples in processes of resource management and environmental impact assessment over the past 15 years. The idea of integration, however, contains the implicit assumption that the cultural beliefs and practices referred to as 'traditional knowledge' conform to western conceptions about 'knowledge.' It takes for granted existing power relations between aboriginal people and the state by assuming that traditional knowledge is simply a new form of 'data' to be incorporated into existing management bureaucracies and acted upon by scientists and resource managers. As a result, aboriginal people have been forced to express themselves in ways that conform to the institutions and practices of state management rather than to their own beliefs, values and practices..." (Abstract)
  Pierotti, R., and D. Wildcat. 2000. Traditional ecological knowledge: The third alternative (Commentary). Ecological Applications 10(5): 1333-1340.
  Province of Alberta. 2003. Best Practices Handbook for Traditional Use Studies.
  Quebec Native Women Inc. 2003. Intellectual Property and Native Women: Seminar Proceedings. December 11 & 12, 2003, Montreal.
  Rahman, A. 2000. Development of an Integrated Traditional and Scientific Knowledge Base: A Mechanism for Accessing, Benefit- Sharing and Documenting Traditional Knowledge for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development and Poverty Alleviation. Paper given at United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Expert Meeting on Systems and National Experiences for Protecting Traditional Knowledge, Innovation and Practices. Geneva, Switzerland, 30 October – 1 November 2000.
  Roberts, K. 1996. Circumpolar Aboriginal People and Co-management Practice: Current Issues in Co-management and Environmental Assessment. Conference proceedings, Arctic Institute of North America and Joint Secretariat – Iuvialuit Renewable Resources Committees. Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary.
  Sadler, B., and P. Boothroyd (eds.). 1995. A Background Paper on Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Modern Environmental Assessment. Vancouver: Centre for Human Settlements.
  Salmon, E. 2000. Kincentric ecology: Indigenous perceptions of the human-nature relationship. Ecological Applications 10(5): 1327-1332.
  Schnarch, B. 2004. Ownership, control, access, and possession (OCAP) or self-determination applied to research. Journal of Aboriginal Health 1(1): 80-95.
  Semali, L. and J. Kincheloe (1999). What is Indigenous Knowledge and Why Should We Study It? In What is Indigenous Knowledge? Voices from the Academy. L. Semali and J. Kincheloe. New York, Falmer Press. pp3-57.
  Stevenson, M. G. 1996. Indigenous knowledge in environmental assessments. Arctic 49(3): 278-291.

Tobias, T. 1999. Chief Kerry's Moose: A Guidebook to Land Use and Occupancy Mapping, Research Design and Data Collection. Union of BC Indian Chiefs and Ecotrust Canada.

  This is an widely cited introduction to the requirements, considerations, and methods in the practice of land use and occupancy mapping.
  Turner, N., M.B. Ignace, and R. Ignace. 2000. Traditional ecological knowledge and wisdom of Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Ecological Applications 10(5): 1275-1287 .
  Tyler, Mary Ellen. 1993. Spiritual stewardship in aboriginal resource management systems. Environments 22(1):1–7.
  Usher, P.J. 2000. Traditional ecological knowledge in environmental assessment and management. Arctic 53(2): 183-193.
  Warren, D. 1991. Using indigenous knowledge in agricultural development. World Bank Discussion Paper 127. Washington, DC: World Bank.
  World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). nd. Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge. Booklet No. 2.
  World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). 2005. The Protection of Traditional Knowledge and Folklore. Proceedings of the WIPO Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore, Eighth Session. Geneva, June 6-10, 2005.